Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 18th May 2021



    • News: Rising unemployment, including among the salaried class, and shrinking real incomes have led to a lack of demand that bodes ill for the economy, said Mahesh Vyas, managing director at the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE).
    • Definition and Classification:
      • The definition of an unemployed person is someone of working age (16 and up), jobless, able and available to work, and actively looking for a job. This means anyone without a job who is reaching out to contacts about jobs or applying to positions.
      • There are four main types of unemployment in an economy—frictional, structural, cyclical, and seasonal—and each has a different cause:
        • Frictional unemployment: Frictional unemployment is caused by temporary transitions in workers’ lives, such as when a worker moves to a new city and has to find a new job. Frictional unemployment also includes people just entering the labor force, such as freshly graduated college students. It is the most common cause of unemployment, and it is always in effect in an economy.
        • Structural unemployment: Structural unemployment is caused by a mismatch in the demographics of workers and the types of jobs available, either when there are jobs available that workers don’t have the skills for, or when there are workers available but no jobs to fill. Structural unemployment is most obvious in industries undergoing technological advancements. For example, in the farming industry, much of the work is becoming mechanized, which means that fewer farmers are needed and many are let go. When these farmers go to cities to find work, they may find no other similar jobs in which to apply their skills.
        • Cyclical unemployment: Cyclical unemployment is caused by declining demand: when there is not enough demand in an economy for goods and services, businesses cannot offer jobs. According to Keynesian economics, cyclical unemployment is a natural result of the business cycle in times of recession: if all consumers become fearful at once, consumers will attempt to increase their savings at the same time, which means there will be a decrease in spending, and businesses will not be able to employ all employable workers.
        • Seasonal unemployment: Seasonal unemployment is caused by different industries or parts of the labor market being available during different seasons. For instance, unemployment goes up in the winter months, because many agricultural jobs end once crops are harvested in the fall, and those workers are left to find new jobs.


    • News: The West Bengal Government will set up a Legislative Council, or a Vidhan Parishad. A decision on setting up the council was taken up at a State Cabinet meeting chaired by Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee on Monday.
    • Details:
      • For setting up the council, a Bill has to be introduced in the State Assembly and then a nod from the State’s Governor is required.
      • West Bengal Legislative Council, the Upper House of the bicameral legislature in West Bengal existed till 1969, till a resolution was passed in the State Assembly for its dissolution.
      • Not all States in the country have Legislative Councils.
    • About State Legislative Council:
      • The State Legislative Council, or Vidhan Parishad, is the upper house in those 6 states of India that have a bicameral state legislature; the lower house being the State Legislative Assembly.
      • Its establishment is defined in Article 169 of the Constitution of India.
      • The State Legislative Council, or Vidhan Parishad, is the upper house in those 6 states of India that have a bicameral state legislature; the lower house being the State Legislative Assembly. Its establishment is defined in Article 169 of the Constitution of India.
      • According to the Article 169 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India can create or abolish the State Legislative Council of a state if that state’s legislature passes a resolution for that with a special majority.
      • The Constitution of India gives limited power to the State Legislative Council. The State Legislative Council can neither form or dissolve a state government.
      • The State Legislative Council also have no role in the passing of money bills. But some of the powers it has is that the Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the State Legislative Council enjoy the same status of Cabinet Ministers in the state.
      • Qualification to become a member of Legislative Council:
        • To become a member of a State Legislative Council (MLC), a person must be a citizen of India, at least 30 years old, mentally sound, not an insolvent, and must be enrolled on the voters’ list of the state for which he or she is contesting an election. He or she may not be a Member of Parliament and Member of the State Legislative Assembly at the same time.
        • The tenure of the MLCs are six years. One-third of the members of State Legislative Council retire after every two years. This arrangement parallels that for the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Parliament of India.
      • Composition:
        • The size of the State Legislative Council cannot be more than one third of the membership of the State Legislative Assembly. However, its size cannot be less than 40 members. These members elect the Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the State Legislative Council.
        • MLCs are chosen in the following manner:
          • One third are elected by the members of local bodies such as municipalities, Gram panchayats, Panchayat samitis and district councils.
          • One third are elected by the members of Legislative Assembly of the State from among the persons who are not members of the State Legislative Assembly.
          • One sixth are nominated by the Governor from persons having knowledge or practical experience in fields such as literature, science, arts, the co-operative movement and social services.
          • One twelfth are elected by persons who are graduates of three years’ standing residing in that state.
          • One twelfth are elected by teachers who had spent at least three years in teaching in educational institutions within the state not lower than secondary schools, including colleges and universities.


    • News: On May 14, Punjab Chief Minister Captain Amarinder Singh declared Malerkotla the 23rd district of the State.
    • Details:
      • Section 5 of the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1887 says the “State government may, by notification, vary the limits and alter the numbers of tehsils, districts and divisions into which the State is divided”.
      • The power to create new districts or alter or abolish existing districts rests with the State governments. This can either be done through an executive order or by passing a law in the State Assembly.
      • States argue that smaller districts lead to better administration and governance. For example, in 2016, the Assam government issued a notification to upgrade the Majuli sub-division to Majuli district for “administrative expediency”.
      • The Centre has no role to play in the alteration of districts or creation of new ones. States are free to decide. The Home Ministry comes into the picture when a State wants to change the name of a district or a railway station. The State government’s request is sent to other departments and agencies such as the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Intelligence Bureau, Department of Posts, Geographical Survey of India Sciences and the Railway Ministry seeking clearance. A no-objection certificate may be issued after examining their replies.
      • According to the 2011 Census, there were 593 districts in the country. The Census results showed that between 2001-2011, as many as 46 districts were created by States.
      • Though the 2021 Census is yet to happen, Know India, a website run by the Government of India, says currently there are 718 districts in the country.


    • News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Monday interacted with doctors across the country dealing with the second wave of the pandemic, urging them to include oxygen audits, forming teams to provide telemedicine services to those undergoing home isolation and in rural areas and the new challenge of mucormycosis.
    • About Telemedicine:
      • Telehealth is the distribution of health-related services and information via electronic information and telecommunication technologies.
      • It allows long-distance patient and clinician contact, care, advice, reminders, education, intervention, monitoring, and remote admissions.
      • Telemedicine is sometimes used as a synonym, or is used in a more limited sense to describe remote clinical services, such as diagnosis and monitoring.
      • When rural settings, lack of transport, a lack of mobility, decreased funding, or a lack of staff restrict access to care, telehealth may bridge the gap. as well as provider distance-learning; meetings, supervision, and presentations between practitioners; online information and health data management and healthcare system integration.