Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 17th May 2022


    • News: The NGT directed the governments of U.P. and Bihar to inform it about the number of corpses found floating in the Ganga, starting from before COVID-19 till March 31 of this year.
    • About National Green Tribunal:
      • It is a specialised body set up under the National Green Tribunal Act (2010) for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources.
      • With the establishment of the NGT, India became the third country in the world to set up a specialised environmental tribunal, only after Australia and New Zealand, and the first developing country to do so.
      • NGT is mandated to make disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing of the same.
      • The NGT has five places of sittings, New Delhi is the Principal place of sitting and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai are the other four.
      • Structure of NGT
        • The Tribunal comprises of the Chairperson, the Judicial Members and Expert Members. They shall hold office for term of five years and are not eligible for reappointment.
        • The Chairperson is appointed by the Central Government in consultation with Chief Justice of India (CJI).
        • A Selection Committee shall be formed by central government to appoint the Judicial Members and Expert Members.
        • There are to be least 10 and maximum 20 full time Judicial members and Expert Members in the tribunal.
      • Powers & Jurisdiction
        • The Tribunal has jurisdiction over all civil cases involving substantial question relating to environment (including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment).
        • Being a statutory adjudicatory body like Courts, apart from original jurisdiction side on filing of an application, NGT also has appellate jurisdiction to hear appeal as a Court (Tribunal).
        • The Tribunal is not bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure 1908, but shall be guided by principles of ‘natural justice’.
        • While passing any order/decision/ award, it shall apply the principles of sustainable development, the precautionary principle and the polluter pays principle.
        • NGT by an order, can provide
          • relief and compensation to the victims of pollution and other environmental damage (including accident occurring while handling any hazardous substance),
          • for restitution of property damaged, and
          • for restitution of the environment for such area or areas, as the Tribunal may think fit.
        • An order/decision/award of Tribunal is executable as a decree of a civil court.
        • The NGT Act also provides a procedure for a penalty for non compliance:
          • Imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years,
          • Fine which may extend to ten crore rupees, and
          • Both fine and imprisonment.
        • An appeal against order/decision/ award of the NGT lies to the Supreme Court, generally within ninety days from the date of communication.
        • The NGT deals with civil cases under the seven laws related to the environment, these include:
          • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974,
          • The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977,
          • The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980,
          • The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,
          • The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986,
          • The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 and
          • The Biological Diversity Act, 2002.
        • Any violation pertaining to these laws or any decision taken by the Government under these laws can be challenged before the NGT.


    • News: The full moon as seen from the Buddha statue at Samajik Parivartan Prateek sthal in Lucknow.
    • About Buddha Purnima:
      • Buddha’s Birthday (also known as Buddha Jayanti, also known as his day of enlightenment – Buddha Purnima, Buddha Pournami) is a Buddhist festival that is celebrated in most of East Asia and South Asia commemorating the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama, later the Gautama Buddha, who was the founder of Buddhism.
      • According to Buddhist tradition, Gautama Buddha was born c. 563–483 BCE in Lumbini, Nepal.
      • The exact date of Buddha’s birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars.
      • The date for the celebration of Buddha’s birthday varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but usually falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June.
      • In South and Southeast Asia, the Buddha’s birth is celebrated as part of Vesak, a festival that also celebrates the Buddha’s enlightenment (on the day of the full moon) and death.


    • News: The mandatory implementation of a national mobile monitoring system for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee (MGNREGS) without addressing various technical issues has led to payments to workers being held up in Kerala.
    • About Public Financial Management System:
      • The Public Financial Management System (PFMS) is a web-based online software application developed and implemented by the Controller General of Accounts (CGA), Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance, Government of India. PFMS started during 2009 with the objective of tracking funds released under all Plan schemes of Government of India, and real time reporting of expenditure at all levels of Programme implementation.
      • Subsequently, the scope was enlarged to cover direct payment to beneficiaries under all Schemes.
      • Gradually, it has been envisaged that digitization of accounts shall be achieved through PFMS and beginning with Pay & Accounts Offices payments, the O/o CGA did further value addition by bringing in more financial activities of the Government of India in the ambit of PFMS.
      • The outputs / deliverables for the various modes / functions of PFMS include (but are not limited to):
        • Payment & Exchequer Control
        • Accounting of Receipts (Tax & Non-Tax)
        • Compilation of Accounts and Preparation of Fiscal Reports
        • Integration with Financial Management Systems of States
      • The primary function of PFMS today is to facilitate sound Public Financial Management System for Government of India by establishing an efficient fund flow system as well as a payment cum accounting network. PFMS provides various stakeholders with a real time, reliable and meaningful management information system and an effective decision support system, as part of the Digital India initiative of Government of India.
      • The mandate given to PFMS by Cabinet decision is to provide:
        • A financial management platform for all plan schemes, a database of all recipient agencies, integration with core banking solution of banks handling plan funds, integration with State Treasuries and efficient and effective tracking of fund flow to the lowest level of implementation for plan scheme of the Government.
        • To provide information across all plan schemes/ implementation agencies in the country on fund utilization leading to better monitoring, review and decision support system to enhance public accountability in the implementation of plan schemes.
        • To result in effectiveness and economy in Public Finance Management through better cash management for Government transparency in public expenditure and real-time information on resource availability and utilization across schemes. The roll-out will also result in improved programme administration and management, reduction of float in the system, direct payment to beneficiaries and greater transparency and accountability in the use of public funds. The proposed system will be an important tool for improving governance.