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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


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    Current Affairs – 16th July 2020

    1.   5G TECHNOLOGY

    • News: Reliance Industries Ltd.’s Jio Platforms unit has developed a 5G technology which will be deployed in India next year, chairman Mukesh Ambani said on Wednesday.
    • About 5G Technology:
      • In telecommunications, 5G is the fifth generation technology standard for cellular networks, which cellular phone companies began deploying worldwide in 2019, the planned successor to the 4G networks which provide connectivity to most current cellphones.
      • Like its predecessors, 5G networks are cellular networks, in which the service area is divided into small geographical areas called cells.
      • All 5G wireless devices in a cell are connected to the Internet and telephone network by radio waves through a local antenna in the cell.
      • The main advantage of the new networks is that they will have greater bandwidth, giving higher download speeds, eventually up to 10 gigabits per second (Gbit/s).
      • Due to the increased bandwidth, it is expected that the new networks will not just serve cellphones like existing cellular networks, but also be used as general internet service providers for laptops and desktop computers, competing with existing ISPs such as cable internet, and also will make possible new applications in internet of things (IoT) and machine to machine areas.
      • The increased speed is achieved partly by using higher-frequency radio waves than current cellular networks.
      • However, higher-frequency radio waves have a shorter range than the frequencies used by previous cell phone towers, requiring smaller cells. So to ensure wide service, 5G networks operate on up to three frequency bands, low, medium, and high.
      • A 5G network will be composed of networks of up to 3 different types of cells, each requiring different antennas, each type giving a different tradeoff of download speed vs. distance and service area. 5G cellphones and wireless devices will connect to the network through the highest speed antenna within range at their location
    • About Internet of Things (IOT):
      • The Internet of things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
      • Traditional fields of embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home and building automation), and others all contribute to enabling the Internet of things. In the consumer market, IoT technology is most synonymous with products pertaining to the concept of the “smart home”, including devices and appliances (such as lighting fixtures, thermostats, home security systems and cameras, and other home appliances) that support one or more common ecosystems, and can be controlled via devices associated with that ecosystem, such as smartphones and smart speakers.


    • News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Wednesday said the youth should skill, reskill and upskill themselves to remain relevant in the rapidly changing business environment and market conditions, which were impacted by the COVID-19 crisis.
    • About Skill India Mission or National Skills Development Mission:
      • It is managed by the National Skills Development Corporation of India.
      • Skill India campaign was launched to train over 40 crore people in India in different skills by 2022.
      • Various initiatives under this campaign are:
        • National Skill Development Mission
        • National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015
        • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
        • Skill Loan scheme
        • Rural India Skill
      • UK has entered into a partnership with India under skill India programme. Virtual partnerships will be initiated at the school level to enable young people of these country to experience the school system of the other country and develop an understanding of the culture, traditions and social and family systems. A commitment to achieve mutual recognition of UK and Indian qualifications was made.
    • About Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra:
      • Vocational training needs to be made aspirational to transform India into the skill capital of the world. In line with the same, Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) intends to establish visible and aspirational Model Training Centres (MTCs) in every district of the country.
      • NSDC is the implementation agency for the project. These training centres will be state-of-the-art Model Training Centres, called as Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra ( PMKK ).
      • The model training centres envisage to:
      • Create benchmark institutions that demonstrate aspirational value for competency-based skill development training.
      • Focus on elements of quality, sustainability and Connection with stakeholders in skills delivery process.
      • Transform from a Mandate-driven footloose model to a sustainable institutional model.
    • About Aatamanirbhar Skilled Employee Employer Mapping (ASEEM) Portal:
      • In an endeavour to improve the information flow and bridge the demand-supply gap in the skilled workforce market, the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) has launched ‘Aatamanirbhar Skilled Employee Employer Mapping (ASEEM)’ portal to help skilled people find sustainable livelihood opportunities.
      • Apart from recruiting a skilled workforce that spurs business competitiveness and economic growth, the Artificial Intelligence-based platform has been envisioned to strengthen their career pathways by handholding them through their journeys to attain industry-relevant skills and explore emerging job opportunities especially in the post COVID era.
      • Envisaging the rapidly changing nature of work and how it impacts the workforce is crucial in restructuring the skilling ecosystem with the new normal settling post-pandemic.
      • Besides identifying major skills gap in the sectors ​and providing review of global best practices, ASEEM will  provide employers a platform to assess the availability of skilled workforce and formulate their hiring plans.
      • Aatamanirbhar Skilled Employee Employer Mapping (ASEEM) refers to all the data, trends and analytics which describe the workforce market and map demand of skilled workforce to supply.
      • It will provide real-time granular information by identifying relevant skilling requirements and employment prospects.
      • Salient Features:
        • ASEEM is usable as a match-making engine to map skilled workers with the jobs available.
        • ASEEM shall help in providing real-time data analytics to National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) and its Sector Skill Councils about the demand and supply patterns including – industry requirements, skill gap analysis, demand per district/ state/cluster​​, key workforce suppliers, key consumers​, migration patterns​ and multiple potential career prospects for candidates.​
        • The portal consists of three IT based interfaces
        • Employer Portal – Employer onboarding, Demand Aggregation, candidate selection ​
        • Dashboard – Reports, Trends, analytics, and highlight gaps ​
        • Candidate Application – Create & Track candidate profile, share job suggestion ​
        • For workers/candidate :The portal and App will have provision for registration and data upload for workers across job roles, sectors and geographies. The skilled workforce can register their profiles on the app and can search for employment opportunities in their neighbourhood.
        • Employers: Through ASEEM, employers, agencies and job aggregators looking for skilled workforce in specific sectors will also have the required details at their fingertips.
        • Policy makers:It will also enable policymakers take more objective view of various sectors.


    • News: An oil tanker sought by the U.S. over allegedly circumventing sanctions on Iran was hijacked on July 5 off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, a seafarers organisation said Wednesday.
    • Map work: