geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 14th September 2021

    1.    INDIA’S RENEWABLE TARGETS

    • News: The United States is to collaborate with India to work towards installing 450 GW of renewable energy by 2030.
    • Targets:
      • The total installed renewable energy capacity in India, excluding large hydro, has crossed the mile-stone of 100 GW.Today India stands at 4th position in the world in terms of installed RE capacity, 5th in solar and 4th in wind in terms of installed capacity.
      • India has set ambitious targets for itself in the area of Renewable Energy, which the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is committed to achieve.
      • While 100 GW has been installed, 50 GW is under installation and 27 GW is under tendering. India has also enhanced its ambition to install 450 GW of  renewable energy  capacity by 2030.If large hydro is included the installed RE capacity increases to 146 GW.
      • The achievement of installed RE capacity of 100 GW is an important milestone in India’s journey towards its target of 450 GW by 2030.
      • While India has been resisting the pressure of declaring a net zero emission goal and calling out nations on their carbon neutral intent announcements, its green energy trajectory has been on an upswing.
      • India on its part has been working on a raft of measures including clean electricity, ethanol blending with fossil fuels, green mobility, battery storage and green hydrogen to help reduce pollution and facilitate commitments made at COP-21 in Paris.
      • India plans to reduce its carbon footprint by 33-35% from its 2005 levels by 2030 and meet 40% of its electricity needs from non-fossil fuel sources by then, as part of its commitments to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted by 195 countries in Paris in 2015.
      • Despite India’s per capita emission being one-third of the world average, the country has been building up its green portfolio. India is on track of meeting its Nationally Determined Contributions targets for electricity generation from non-fossil fuel sources and emission reductions.
    • About Nationally Determined Contributions:
      • Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) or Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) are non-binding national plans highlighting climate actions, including climate related targets for greenhouse gas emission reductions, policies and measures governments aim to implement in response to climate change and as a contribution to achieve the global targets set out in the Paris Agreement.
      • The NDCs combine the top-down system of a traditional international agreement with bottom-up system-in elements through which countries put forward their own goals and policies in the context of their own national circumstances, capabilities, and priorities, with the goal of reducing global greenhouse gas emissions enough limit anthropogenic temperature rise to well below 2 °C (3.6 °F) above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 °C
      • The NDCs contain steps taken towards emissions reductions and also aim to address steps taken to adapt to climate change impacts, and what support the country needs, or will provide, to address climate change. After the initial submission of INDCs in March 2015, an assessment phase followed to review the impact of the submitted INDCs before the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference.
      • All the goals for each country are stated in their NDC which are based on the points below:
        • Climate neutral to 2050
        • Limiting global warming to well below 2 °C and pursuing efforts to limit it to 1.5 °C
        • Reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG)
        • Increase adaptation to the harmful effects of climate change
        • Adjust financial flows so they can be combined with reduced GHG emissions

    2.    CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (CPI)

    • News: India’s retail inflation cooled to 5.3% in August from 5.6% in July, thanks to food price inflation falling to 3.11% from nearly 4% in July, and the effect of a high base last August.
    • About Consumer Price Index (CPI):
      • Consumer Price Index or CPI as it is commonly called is an index measuring retail inflation in the economy by collecting the change in prices of most common goods and services used by consumers. Called market basket, CPI is calculated for a fixed list of items including food, housing, apparel, transportation, electronics, medical care, education, etc. Note that the price data is collected periodically, and thus, the CPI is used to calculate the inflation levels in an economy. This can be further used to compute the cost of living. This also provides insights as to how much a consumer can spend to be on par with the price change.
      • The Reserve Bank of India and other statistical agencies study CPI so as to understand the price change of various commodities and keep a tab on inflation. CPI is also a helpful pointer in understanding the real value of wages, salaries and pensions, the purchasing power of a country’s currency; and regulating prices.
      • In India, there are four consumer price index numbers, which are calculated, and these are as follows:
        • CPI for Industrial Workers (IW)
        • CPI for Agricultural Labourers (AL)
        • CPI for Rural Labourers (RL) and
        • CPI for Urban Non-Manual Employees (UNME).
      • While the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation collects CPI (UNME) data and compiles it, the remaining three are collected by the Labour Bureau in the Ministry of Labour.
      • The CPI is calculated with reference to a base year, which is used as a benchmark. The price change pertains to that year.

    3.    BIO – DECOMPOSER

    • News: Terming the bio-decomposer technique a “smashing success” at curbing stubble burning in the Capital, Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal on Monday appealed to the Centre to ask the neighbouring States to use the same to prevent pollution.
    • Details:
      • The organic carbon, nitrogen, bacterial and fungal content in the soil increased after using the bio-decomposer and the stubble essentially ended up becoming a manure for the soil.
    • About PUSA’s Bio – decomposer:
      • The bio-decomposer is a solution containing seven fungal species and was created by scientists of the institute located in Delhi’s Pusa area.
      • The Pusa decomposer breaks down the stubble – so that it doesn’t need to be burnt – while also enriching the soil in the long run. The decomposer was given to farmers on a pilot basis in 2019.
      • These fungal species in the solution produce enzymes that have the ability to act on the components of paddy straw. The fungal spores are packed in four capsules which are sufficient for one hectare of land.
      • Every year around the months of October and November, farmers in northern states like Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh burn the stubble left from harvesting paddy to prepare the soil for next crop.
      • Farmers say they only have 10-15 days between harvesting and sowing seeds for the next season and stubble burning is a time-saving and cost-effective method to prepare the soil.
      • The burning of vast fields in these states, along with the falling temperatures and decreased wind speed, contributes to air pollution in the Indo-Gangetic plains and particularly in the landlocked national capital, Delhi.

    4.    MYSORE DASARA

    • News: Elephants participating in this year’s low-key Dasara festivities arrived in Mysuru on Monday after the traditional and colourful ‘Gajapayana’ was flagged off at Veeranahosahalli on the outskirts of Nagarahole, near Hunsur.
    • About Mysore Dasara:
      • Mysore Dasara is the Nadahabba (state festival) of the state of Karnataka in India.
      • It is a 10-day festival, starting with nine nights called Navaratri and the last day being Vijayadashami.
      • The festival is observed on the tenth day in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October.
      • The Hindu festival of Dasara, Navratri and Vijayadashami celebrates the victory of good over evil.
      • It was the day in the Hindu legends when Goddess Chamundeshwari (Durga) killed the demon Mahishasura.
      • Mahishasura is the demon whose slaying by the Goddess gave the city the name Mysuru.
      • The Mysuru tradition celebrates the warriors and the state fighting for the good during this festival, ritually worshipping and displaying the state sword, weapons, elephants, horses along with Hindu Devi goddess in her warrior form (predominantly) as well as the Vishnu avatar Rama.
      • The ceremonies and a major procession is traditionally presided by the king of Mysuru.
      • The city of Mysuru has a long tradition of celebrating the Dasara festival with grandeur and pomp to mark the festival. The Dasara festival in Mysuru completed 409th anniversary in the year 2019, while evidence suggests the festivities were observed in Karnataka state by the Vijayanagara Empire kings in the 15th century.
    • About Nagarhole National Park:
      • Nagarhole National Park is a national park located in Kodagu district and Mysore district in Karnataka, India.
      • This park was declared the 37th Tiger Reserves of India in 1999. It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. The Western Ghats Nilgiri Sub-Cluster of 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi), including all of Nagarhole National Park, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.
      • The park has rich forest cover, small streams, hills, valleys and waterfalls, and a healthy predator-prey ratio, with many tigers, Gaur, elephants, Indian leopards, and deer including chital and Sambar deer.
      • The park ranges the foothills of the Western Ghats spreading down the Brahmagiri hills and south towards Kerala state.
      • It lies between the latitudes 12°15’37.69″N and longitudes 76°17’34.4″E. The park covers 643 km2 (248 sq mi) located to the north-west of Bandipur National Park.
      • The Kabini reservoir separates the two parks.
      • Together with the adjoining Bandipur National Park (870 km2 (340 sq mi)), Mudumalai National Park (320 km2 (120 sq mi)) and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (344 km2 (133 sq mi)), it forms the largest protected area in Southern India.