Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 13th September 2021


    • News: A herd of elephants from a national park in Nepal, which reached the Pilibhit Tiger Reserve in Uttar Pradesh, has damaged crops of farmers.
    • About Pilibhit Tiger Reserve:
      • Pilibhit Tiger Reserve located in Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur Districts of Uttar Pradesh was notified as a tiger reserve in 2014.
      • It forms part of the Terai Arc Landscape in the upper Gangetic Plain along the India-Nepal border.
      • The habitat is characterized by sal forests, tall grasslands and swamp maintained by periodic flooding from rivers.
      • The Sharda Sagar Dam extending up to a length of 22 km (14 mi) is on the boundary of the reserve.
      • Pilibhit is one of the few well-forested districts in Uttar Pradesh. According to an estimate of the year 2018, Pilibhit district has over 800 km2 (310 sq mi) forests, constituting roughly 23% of the district’s total area.
      • The tiger reserve got the first International award TX2 for doubling the tiger population in a stipulated time.
      • The protected area used to be a timber yielding reserve forest, until it was declared as the 46th tiger reserve in June 2014.
      • The northeastern boundary of the reserve is the River Sharda, which defines the Indo-Nepal border, while the southwest boundary is marked by the River Sharda and the River Ghaghara.
      • The sal woodland is very dense with good natural regeneration, amounting to almost 76% of the reserve area.
      • The grasslands are subjected to seasonal flooding water.
      • Mugger crocodile and Gharial are also found in the reserve.
      • Pilibhit tiger reserve is an important habitat for tiger owing to its connection with several tiger habitats within the State and outside. The important linkages are:
        • Surahi range- Terai East Division Uttarkhand
        • Lagga-Bagga – Shuklaphanta National Park (Nepal)
        • Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary – Dudhwa
      • The corridor linkages are used by the tiger and other wild animals and require monitoring and restoration by fostering a co-occurrence agenda with local people.
    • About TX2:
      • The St Petersburg Tiger Summit set forth a visionary goal, igniting political momentum at the highest levels to ensure the future of wild tigers are given the priority, effort, innovation and investment they deserve.
      • This resulted in the Global Tiger Recovery Plan, providing a blueprint for each country to reach the TX2 target.
      • Through the Global Tiger Initiative, Global Tiger Forum and other critical platforms, WWF continues to drive the TX2 goal forward, supporting the 13 tiger range governments to take action and fulfil their commitments with partnership, policy advice, and collaborative solutions.
    • About the Global Tiger Initiative:
      • The Global Tiger Initiative is an alliance between governments created to save wild tigers from going extinct founded in June 2008.
      • The Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) programof the World Bank, using its presence and convening ability, brought global partners together to strengthen the tiger agenda.
      • Among other successful conservation programs, the GTI developed The Global Tiger Recovery Program (GRTP) to assist in reaching the goal of doubling the number of wild tigers through effective management and restoration of tiger habitats; the elimination of poaching, smuggling, and illegal trade of tigers, and their parts; collaboration to manage borders and in stopping illegal trade; working with indigenous and local communities; and returning tigers to their former range.

    2.    NATGRID

    • News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi is soon expected to launch the National Intelligence Grid or NATGRID that aims to provide a “cutting-edge technology to enhance India’s counter-terror capabilities”, official sources said. They said the final “synchronisation and testing” of the ambitious electronic database, which was mooted after the 26/11 Mumbai terror attacks in 2008, is being carried out so that it can go live.
    • About NATGRID:
      • NATGRID is conceptualised as a seamless and secure database for information on terrorists, economic crimes and similar incidents to help bolster India’s capabilities.
      • The NATGRID has been envisaged as a robust mechanism to track suspects and prevent terrorist attacks with real-time data and access to classified information like immigration, banking, individual taxpayers, air and train travels.
      • The 26/11 terrorist siege in Mumbai back in 2008 exposed the deficiency that security agencies had no mechanism to look for vital information on a real-time basis.
      • In the first phase, 10 user agencies and 21 service providers will be connected with the NATGRID while in later phases about 950 additional organisations will be brought on board, as per a PTI report.
      • In the following years, more than 1,000 organisations will be further integrated into the NATGRID.
      • These data sources include records related to immigration entry and exit, banking and financial transactions and telecommunications.
      • As per a recent order, the Income Tax Department will share PAN and bank account details of any entity with 10 investigative and intelligence agencies under NATGRID.
      • The Central Board of Direct Taxes, which frames policy for the I-T Department, said in a July 21 order that information like permanent account number (PAN), Tax Deduction and Collection Account Number (TAN), bank account details, a summary of IT Returns and tax deducted at source (TDS) and “any other information as mutually agreed” will be shared with the 10 agencies.
      • The “furnishing and receiving of information to and from” these central agencies will be done through the National Intelligence Grid.
      • NATGRID database will be available to prominent federal agencies including, the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI), Enforcement Directorate (ED), Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs, Central Board of Direct Taxes (for Income Tax Department) (CBDT), Cabinet Secretariat, Intelligence Bureau (IB), Directorate General of GST Intelligence, Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB), Financial Intelligence Unit and the National Investigation Agency (NIA).


    • News: The National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT) deals with matters mainly related to companies law and the insolvency law, while the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal (ITAT) deals with income tax matters.
    • About National Company Law Tribunal:
      • The National Company Law Tribunal is a quasi-judicial body in India that adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies.
      • The tribunal was established under the Companies Act 2013 and was constituted on 1 June 2016 by the government of India and is based on the recommendation of the V. Balakrishna Eradi committee on law relating to the insolvency and the winding up of companies.
      • All proceedings under the Companies Act, including proceedings relating to arbitration, compromise, arrangements, reconstructions and the winding up of companies shall be disposed off by the National Company Law Tribunal.
      • The NCLT bench is chaired by a Judicial member who is supposed to be a retired or a serving High Court Judge and a Technical member who must be from the Indian Corporate Law Service, ICLS Cadre.
      • The National Company Law Tribunal is the adjudicating authority for the insolvency resolution process of companies and limited liability partnerships under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016.
      • No criminal court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any suit or proceeding in respect of any matter which the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal is empowered to determine by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force and no injunction shall be granted by any court or other authority in respect of any action taken or to be taken in pursuance of any power conferred by or under this Act or any other law for the time being in force, by the Tribunal or the Appellate Tribunal.
      • The National Company Law Tribunal has the power under the Companies Act to adjudicate proceedings:
        • Initiated before the Company Law Board under the previous act (the Companies Act 1956);
        • Pending before the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction, including those pending under the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985;
        • Pending before the Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction; and
        • Pertaining to claims of oppression and mismanagement of a company, winding up of companies and all other powers prescribed under the Companies Act.
        • Decisions of the tribunal may be appealed to the National Company Law Appellate Tribunal, the decisions of which may further be appealed to the Supreme Court of India on a point of law.
        • The Supreme Court of India has upheld the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code in its entirety.