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The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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    Current Affairs – 13th August 2021


    • News: A technical anomaly preventing the ignition of the GSLV-F10 rocket’s cryogenic upper stage spelt disappointment for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on Thursday as the national space agency could not accomplish the mission to launch earth observation satellite EOS-03 into the intended orbit.
    • About EOS 03 Satellite:
      • EOS-03, a powerful earth observation satellite that was supposed to help in near real-time monitoring of the Indian landmass, was lost in the process.
      • EOS-03 would have provided relatively low-resolution, but continuous, imagery of the Indian landmass that was meant to be used for monitoring of natural disaster like floods and cyclones, water bodies, crops, vegetation and forest cover.
    • About Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV):
      • Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
      • GSLV was used in thirteen launches from 2001 to 2018, with more launches planned. Even though GSLV Mark III shares the name, it is an entirely different launch vehicle.
      • GSLV uses major components that are already proven in the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) launch vehicles in the form of the S125/S139 solid rocket booster and the liquid-fueled Vikas engine.
      • Due to the thrust required for injecting the satellite in a geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) the third stage was to be powered by a LOX/LH2 Cryogenic engine which at that time India did not possess or had the technology know-how to build one.
      • ISRO initiated the Cryogenic Upper Stage Project in April 1994 and began developing its own cryogenic engine which was to develop third stage Cryogenic engine.
    • About GSLV Mark III:
      • The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III), also referred to as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3 (LVM3), is a three-stage medium-lift launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
      • Primarily designed to launch communication satellites into geostationary orbit, it is also identified as the launch vehicle for crewed missions under the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme and dedicated science missions like Chandrayaan-2.
      • GSLV Mk III launched CARE, India’s space capsule recovery experiment module, Chandrayaan-2, India’s second lunar mission and will be used to carry Gaganyaan, the first crewed mission under Indian Human Spaceflight Programme.
    • About Crew Module Atmospheric Re – entry Experiment (CARE):
      • The Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) is an experimental test vehicle for the Indian Space Research Organisation’s future ISRO orbital vehicle called Gaganyaan.
      • The crew module was mounted upside-down inside the payload fairing of the GSLV Mk III.
      • CARE was made of aluminium alloy and had a lift-off mass of 3,735 kg. Its diameter was 3100 mm and its height was 2698 mm.
      • The module had an ablative thermal protection.
      • The side panels were covered with Medium Density Ablative (MDA) tiles and the forward heat shield was made of carbon phenolic tiles.
    • About Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR):
      • The Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) is a multilateral export control regime.
      • It is an informal political understanding among 35 member states that seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.
      • The regime was formed in 1987 by the G-7 industrialized countries.
      • The MTCR seeks to limit the risks of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by controlling exports of goods and technologies that could make a contribution to delivery systems (other than manned aircraft) for such weapons.
      • In this context, the MTCR places particular focus on rockets and unmanned aerial vehicles capable of delivering a payload of at least 500 kg (1,100 lb) to a range of at least 300 km (190 miles) and on equipment, software, and technology for such systems.
      • The MTCR is not a treaty and does not impose any legally binding obligations on Partners (members). Rather, it is an informal political understanding among states that seek to limit the proliferation of missiles and missile technology.


    • News: Senior officials of Australia, India, Japan and the U.S. met in a video conference on Thursday for the first Quad meeting since March, when the leaders of the grouping had decided on a number of initiatives including cooperation on countering the COVID-19 pandemic.
    • About Quadrilateral Security Dialogue:
      • The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD, also known as the Quad) is a strategic dialogue between the United States, Japan, Australia and India that is maintained by talks between member countries.
      • The dialogue was paralleled by joint military exercises of an unprecedented scale, titled Exercise Malabar.
      • The diplomatic and military arrangement was widely viewed as a response to increased Chinese economic and military power, and the Chinese government responded to the Quadrilateral dialogue by issuing formal diplomatic protests to its members.


    • News: The maiden bilateral naval exercise between India and Saudi Arabia named ‘AL–Mohed AL–Hindi’.
    • Details:
      • The Indian Navy’s visit to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was set rolling with the Flag Officer Commanding Western Fleet (FOCWF), Rear Adm Ajay Kochhar, visiting the Fleet Cdr of Royal Saudi Navy’s Eastern Fleet, Rear Adm Majid Al Qahtani.


    • News: From December, India will move to a system that will count tigers and elephants as part of a common survey. The tiger survey is usually held once in four years and elephants are counted once in five years.
    • Details:
      • The decision was made public that new population estimation protocol to be adopted in the all-India elephant and tiger population survey would start in 2022.
      • Since 2006, the Wildlife Institute of India (WII), Dehradun, which is affiliated to the Environment Ministry, has a standardised protocol in place that States then use to estimate tiger numbers. Based on sightings in camera traps and indirect estimation methods, tiger numbers are computed.
      • Given that 90% of the area occupied by elephants and tigers is common, and once estimation methods are standardised, having a common survey can significantly save costs.
      • Asian elephants are listed as “endangered” on the IUCN Red List of threatened species.


    • News: Pakistan on Thursday successfully test-fired a nuclear-capable surface-to-surface ballistic missile which can strike targets up to 290 kilometres, the Army said in a statement.
    • Details:
      • The successful training launch of ballistic missile ‘Ghaznavi’ was aimed at ensuring operational readiness of Army Strategic Forces Command, besides re-validating technical parameters of the weapon system.
      • Ghaznavi is capable of delivering multiple types of warheads up to a range of 290 km.
      • The Army Strategic Forces Command appreciated the excellent standard of training, handling of the weapon system and execution of launch mission in the field by troops.