geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 11th May 2022

    1.    BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE

    • News: An airport without planes, a revolving restaurant with no diners, a debt-laden seaport — Sri Lanka’s economic crisis has been exacerbated by Chinese-funded projects that stand as neglected monuments to government extravagance.
    • About Belt and Road Initiative:
      • The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), formerly known as One Belt One Road or OBOR for short, is a global infrastructure development strategy adopted by the Chinese government in 2013 to invest in nearly 70 countries and international organizations.
      • It is considered a centerpiece of the Chinese leader Xi Jinping’s foreign policy.
      • The BRI forms a central component of Xi’s “Major Country Diplomacy” strategy, which calls for China to assume a greater leadership role for global affairs in accordance with its rising power and status.
      • As of March 2022, 146 countries were listed as having signed up to the BRI.
      • Xi originally announced the strategy as the “Silk Road Economic Belt” during an official visit to Kazakhstan in September 2013.
      • “Belt” is short for the “Silk Road Economic Belt,” referring to the proposed overland routes for road and rail transportation through landlocked Central Asia along the famed historical trade routes of the Western Regions; whereas “road” is short for the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road”, referring to the Indo-Pacific sea routes through Southeast Asia to South Asia, the Middle East and Africa.
      • Examples of Belt and Road Initiative infrastructure investments include ports, skyscrapers, railroads, roads, bridges, airports, dams, coal-fired power stations, and railroad tunnels.
      • The initiative was incorporated into the Constitution of China in 2017.
    • About Debt Trap Diplomacy:
      • Debt-trap diplomacy is a term in international finance which describes a creditor country or institution extending debt to a borrowing nation partially, or solely, to increase the lender’s political leverage.
      • The term was coined by Indian academic Brahma Chellaney.
      • The creditor country is said to extend excessive credit to a debtor country with the intention of extracting economic or political concessions when the debtor country becomes unable to meet its repayment obligations.
      • The conditions of the loans are often not publicized, and benefit the lender. The borrowed money commonly pays for contractors and materials sourced from the creditor country.

    2.    QUTBUDDIN BAKHTIAR KAKI

    • News: For 50-year-old Nasir Khan, a tourist from Gujarat, the visit to Qutub Minar on Tuesday turned out to be very different from what he had imagined.
    • About Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki:
      • Qutb ul Aqtab Khwaja Sayyid Muhammad Bakhtiyar AlHussaini, Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki (born 1173 – died 1235) was a Sunni Muslim Sufi mystic, saint and scholar of the Chishti Order from Delhi, India.
      • He was the disciple and the spiritual successor of Moinuddin Chishti as head of the Chishti order, and the person to whom the Qutb Minar, Delhi is dedicated.
      • Before him the Chishti order in India was confined to Ajmer and Nagaur.
      • He played a major role in establishing the order securely in Delhi.
      • His dargah located adjacent to Zafar Mahal in Mehrauli, and the oldest dargah in Delhi, is also the venue of his annual Urs festivities.
      • His most famous disciple and spiritual successor was Fariduddin Ganjshakar, who in turn became the spiritual master of Delhi’s noted Sufi saint, Nizamuddin Auliya, who himself was the spiritual master of Amir Khusrau and Nasiruddin Chirag-e-Delhi.

    3.    INTEGRATED BATTLE GROUPS

    • News: The Army has identified a holding formation on the Western front and a Strike formation on the Northern borders to be converted into agile Integrated Battle Groups (IBG).
    • Details:
      • The purpose of restructuring our existing formations into integrated battle groups was to have forces which are lean, agile and tailor-made which would afford the commanders the flexibility and more options for their employment in the respective theatres to achieve the desired outcomes.
      • IBG would be tailor made based on Threat, Terrain and Task and resources will be allotted based on the three T’s. The idea is for them to be light with centralised logistics and be able to mobilise within 12 -48 hrs based on the location.
      • While a Command is the largest static formation of the Army spread across a defined geography, a Corps is the largest mobile formation.
      • Typically, each Corps has about three Divisions.
      • The idea is to reorganise them into IBGs which are Brigade sized units but have all the essential elements like infantry, armoured, artillery and air defence embedded together.
      • The IBGs will also be defence and offensive in nature.
      • After the terrorist attack on Parliament in 2001, the Indian military undertook massive mobilisation but the Army’s formations which were deep inside took weeks to mobilise losing the element of surprise.
      • Following this, the Army formulated a proactive doctrine known as ‘Cold Start’ to launch swift offensive

     

     

    MCQS FOR PRACTICE

    1. In China’s Belt and Road Initiative, the word “Road” Stands for
      1. Silk Road Economic Belt
      2. China Pakistan Economic Corridor
      3. 21st Century Maritime silk Road
      4. Extensive Rail and Road Network
    2. Which of the following explains Debt Trap Diplomacy?
      1. Creditor country extends excessive credit to a debtor country with the intention of extracting economic or political concessions
      2. When Debtor country goes beyond its means to borrow for infrastructure projects
      3. When Creditor country secretly conducts a financial deal with debtor country to provide infrastructure in turn of geo strategic benefits
      4. None of these
    3. Who coined the term “Debt Trap Diplomacy”?
      1. Brahma Chellaney
      2. Swaminathan
      3. Arvind Banerjee
      4. Visvas Nayak
    4. Qutub Minar was constructed in the memory of which Chishti order mystic?
      1. Abu Aḥmad Abdal Chishti
      2. Abu Muḥammad Chishti
      3. Qutab-ud-Din Maudood Chishtī
      4. Qutab-ud-Din Bakhtyar Kaki
    5. Qutub Minar was constructed by
      1. Allaudin Khilji
      2. Qutub ud Din Aibak
      3. Iltutmish
      4. Giaz ud din Balban