geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 11th July 2020

    1.   SOLAR POWER

    • News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Friday said solar energy would play a major role in achieving self-reliance in energy, essential for an ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ (self-reliant India).
    • About Solar Power:
      • Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
      • Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and solar tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.
      • Photovoltaic cells convert light into an electric current using the photovoltaic effect.
      • Photovoltaics were initially solely used as a source of electricity for small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell to remote homes powered by an off-grid rooftop PV system.
    • About Solar Cell:
      • A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
      • It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light.
      • Individual solar cell devices are often the electical building blocks of photovoltaic modules, known colloquially as solar panels.
      • The common single junction silicon solar cell can produce a maximum open-circuit voltage of approximately 0.5 to 0.6 volts.
      • The operation of a photovoltaic (PV) cell requires three basic attributes:
        • The absorption of light, generating either electron-hole pairs or excitons.
        • The separation of charge carriers of opposite types.
        • The separate extraction of those carriers to an external circuit.
      • Fact: Asia’s largest Solar power project with capacity of 750 MW is located in Rewa, Madhya Pradesh.
      • Fact: World’s Largest Solar Power Plant is Bhadla Solar Park in Rajasthan’s Jodhpur district with installed capacity of 2250 MW in an area of 14,000 Acres.

    2.   FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

    • News: Stating that fundamental duties should become an in-segregable part of every citizen and be practised as a way of life, Justice Misra also emphasised on the rich composite culture of the country, “which many have not understood” but foster a sense of fraternity and brotherhood.
    • About Fundamental Duties:
      • The Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties are sections of the Constitution of India that prescribe the fundamental obligations of the states to its citizens and the duties and the rights of the citizens to the State.
      • The Fundamental Duties’ are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India.
      • These duties set out in Part IV–A of the Constitution, concern individuals and the nation. Like the Directive Principles, they are not enforceable by courts unless otherwise made enforceable by parliamentary law.
      • The fundamental duties of citizens were added to the constitution by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, upon the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee that was constituted by the government earlier that year.
      • Originally ten in number, the fundamental duties were increased to eleven by the 86th Amendment in 2002, which added a duty on every parent or guardian to ensure that their child or ward was provided opportunities for education between the ages of six and fourteen years.
      • It shall be the duty of every citizen of India:
        • To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
        • To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
        • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
        • To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
        • To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
        • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
        • To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures;
        • To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
        • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
        • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;
        • Who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six to fourteen years.