geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 11th January 2022

    1.   KRISHNA WATER DISPUTE

    • News: Justices D.Y. Chandrachud and A.S. Bopanna of the Supreme Court on Monday recused themselves from hearing a dispute among the States of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka on the allocation of the Krishna river water.
    • About Krishna Water Dispute:
      • A dispute over the sharing of Krishna waters has been ongoing for many decades, beginning with the erstwhile Hyderabad and Mysore states, and later continuing between successors Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
      • In 1969, the Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal (KWDT) was set up under the Inter-State River Water Dispute Act, 1956, and presented its report in 1973. The report, which was published in 1976, divided the 2060 TMC (thousand million cubic feet) of Krishna water at 75 per cent dependability into three parts: 560 TMC for Maharashtra, 700 TMC for Karnataka and 800 TMC for Andhra Pradesh. At the same time, it was stipulated that the KWDT order may be reviewed or revised by a competent authority or tribunal any time after May 31, 2000.
      • Afterward, as new grievances arose between the states, the second KWDT was instituted in 2004. It delivered its report in 2010, which made allocations of the Krishna water at 65 per cent dependability and for surplus flows as follows: 81 TMC for Maharashtra, 177 TMC for Karnataka, and 190 TMC for Andhra Pradesh.
      • Soon after the 2010 report was presented, Andhra Pradesh challenged it through a Special Leave Petition before the Supreme Court in 2011. In an order in the same year, the apex court stopped the Centre from publishing it in the official Gazette.
      • In 2013, the KWDT issued a ‘further report’, which was again challenged by Andhra Pradesh in the Supreme Court in 2014. After the creation of Telangana from Andhra Pradesh in 2014, the Water Resources Ministry has been extending the duration of the KWDT.
      • Andhra Pradesh has since asked that Telangana be included as a separate party at the KWDT and that the allocation of Krishna waters be reworked among four states, instead of three
      • Maharashtra and Karnataka are now resisting this move. On September 3, the two states said: “Telangana was created following bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh. Therefore, allocation of water should be from Andhra Pradesh’s share which was approved by the tribunal.”
    • About Krishna River:
      • The Krishna is an east-flowing river that originates at Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra and merges with the Bay of Bengal, flowing through Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
      • Together with its tributaries, it forms a vast basin that covers 33% of the total area of the four states.
      • The Krishna River is the fourth-largest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganges, Godavari and Brahmaputra. The river, also called Krishnaveni, is almost 1,288 kilometres (800 mi) long.
        • Left Bank tributaries: Bhima, Dindi, Musi, Paleru, Munneru
        • Right Bank tributaries:  Venna, Koyna, Panchganga, Dudhaganga, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha, Tungabhadra
      • The following are few other wildlife sanctuaries located in the Krishna basin:
        • Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve
        • Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary
        • Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary
        • Ghataprabha Bird Sanctuary
        • Gudavi Bird Sanctuary
        • Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary
        • Radhanagari Wildlife Sanctuary
        • Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary
        • Chandoli National Park
        • Kudremukh National Park
        • Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park
        • Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park
        • Mrugavani National Park
        • Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary
        • Ranibennur Blackbuck Sanctuary
        • Shettihalli Wildlife Sanctuary
        • Daroji Sloth Bear Sanctuary, Bellary
      • About Inter – State River Water Sharing Disputes:
        • Constitutional Provisions:
          • Entry 17 of State List deals with water i.e. water supply, irrigation, canal, drainage, embankments, water storage and water power.
          • Entry 56 of Union List empowers the Union Government for the regulation and development of inter-state rivers and river valleys to the extent declared by Parliament to be expedient in the public interest.
        • According to Article 262, in case of disputes relating to waters:
          • Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in, any inter-State river or river valley.
          • Parliament may, by law provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall exercise jurisdiction in respect of any such dispute or complaint as mentioned above.
        • Mechanism for Inter-State River Water Disputes Resolution:
          • The resolution of water dispute is governed by the Inter-State River Water Disputes Act, 1956.
          • According to its provisions, if a State Government makes a request regarding any water dispute and the Central Government is of opinion that the water dispute cannot be settled by negotiations, then a Water Disputes Tribunal is constituted for the adjudication of the water dispute.
          • The act was amended in 2002, to include the major recommendations of the Sarkaria Commission.
          • The amendments mandated a one year time frame to setup the water disputes tribunal and also a 3 year time frame to give a decision.

    2.   COLLECTIVE SECURITY TREATY ORGANISATION (CSTO)

    • News: The protests in Kazakhstan started on 2 January. While the rise in fuel prices might have been the immediate trigger for the protests, they also brought to the fore grievances over structural problems like corruption and socio-economic inequality. The Kazakh President has called on the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO), for help to deal with the protests.
    • About Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO):
      • The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) is an intergovernmental military alliance in Eurasia that consists of select post-Soviet states.
      • The treaty had its origins to the Soviet Armed Forces, which was gradually replaced by the United Armed Forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
      • On 15 May 1992, six post-Soviet states belonging to the Commonwealth of Independent States—Russia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan—signed the Collective Security Treaty (also referred to as the Tashkent Pact or Tashkent Treaty).
      • Three other post-Soviet states—Azerbaijan, Belarus, and Georgia—signed in 1993 and the treaty took effect in 1994.
      • In 1999, six of the nine—all but Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Uzbekistan—agreed to renew the treaty for five more years.
      • In 2002 those six agreed to create the Collective Security Treaty Organization as a military alliance.
      • The CSTO charter reaffirmed the desire of all participating states to abstain from the use or threat of force. Signatories would not be able to join other military alliances.
      • It also employs a “rotating presidency” system in which the country leading the CSTO alternates every year.