geography

Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020

BRAHMAPUTRA AND ITS TRIBUTARIES

About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 10th November 2021

    1.     SMOG

    • News: As the city’s air continued to be toxic, a team from IIT Bombay is studying the impact of the smog tower fitted with 5,000 filters.
    • About Smog:
      • Smog, or smoke fog, is a type of intense air pollution. The word “smog” was coined in the early 20th century, and is a contraction (portmanteau) of the words smoke and fog to refer to smoky fog due to its opacity, and odor.
      • The word was then intended to refer to what was sometimes known as pea soup fog, a familiar and serious problem in London from the 19th century to the mid-20th century.
      • This kind of visible air pollution is composed of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxide, ozone, smoke and other particulates.
      • Man-made smog is derived from coal combustion emissions, vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, forest and agricultural fires and photochemical reactions of these emissions.
      • Smog is often categorized as being either summer smog or winter smog. Summer smog is primarily associated with the photochemical formation of ozone.
      • During the summer season when the temperatures are warmer and there is more sunlight present, photochemical smog is the dominant type of smog formation.
      • During the winter months when the temperatures are colder, and atmospheric inversions are common, there is an increase in coal and other fossil fuel usage to heat homes and buildings.
      • These combustion emissions, together with the lack of pollutant dispersion under inversions, characterize winter smog formation.
      • While photochemical smog is the main smog formation mechanism during summer months, winter smog episodes are still common. Smog formation in general relies on both primary and secondary pollutants.
      • Primary pollutants are emitted directly from a source, such as emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal combustion.
      • Secondary pollutants, such as ozone, are formed when primary pollutants undergo chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
    • About Photochemical Smog:
      • Photochemical smog, often referred to as “summer smog”, is the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground-level ozone.
      • Photochemical smog depends on primary pollutants as well as the formation of secondary pollutants.
      • These primary pollutants include nitrogen oxides, particularly nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and volatile organic compounds.
      • The relevant secondary pollutants include peroxylacyl nitrates (PAN), tropospheric ozone, and aldehydes.

    2.     EASTERN GHATS

    • News: Visakhapatnam is known for its salubrious climate, tranquil beaches, peaceful social fabric, Central public sector units, educational institutions and cosmopolitan culture.
    • About Eastern Ghats:
      • The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains along India’s eastern coast.
      • The Eastern Ghats pass through Odisha, Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south passing some parts of Karnataka as well as Telangana.
      • They are eroded and cut through by four major rivers of peninsular India, viz. Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri.
      • The Eastern Ghats are made up of charnockites, granite gneiss, khondalites, metamorphic gneisses and quartzite rock formations.
      • The structure of the Eastern Ghats includes thrusts and strike-slip faults all along its range. Limestone, bauxite and iron ore are found in the Eastern Ghats hill ranges.
      • Rivers flowing through the Eastern Ghats include:
        • Brahmani
        • Godavari
        • Kaveri
        • Krishna
        • Mahanadi
        • Subarnarekha
        • Tungabhadra
      • Rivers originating on the Eastern Ghats include:

     

    • Baitarani River
    • Budhabalanga River
    • Rushikulya River
    • Vamsadhara River
    • Palar River
    • Nagavali River
    • Champavathi River
    • Gosthani River
    • Sarada River
    • Sabari River
    • Sileru River
    • Tammileru
    • Gundlakamma River
    • Pennai Yaru River
    • Swarnamukhi
    • Kundu River
    • Vellar River
    • Penna River

     

    3.     SMART CITIES MISSION

    • News: Alleging botched implementation of the Smart City project during the erstwhile AIADMK Government, Chief Minister M.K. Stalin on Tuesday said a Commission of Inquiry would be constituted and action taken against contractors who implemented the project.
    • About Smart Cities Mission:
      • National Smart Cities Mission is an urban renewal and retrofitting program by the Government of India with the mission to develop smart cities across the country, making them citizen friendly and sustainable.
      • The Union Ministry of Urban Development is responsible for implementing the mission in collaboration with the state governments of the respective cities.
      • The mission initially included 100 cities, with the deadline for completion of the projects set between 2019 and 2023.
      • The effective combined completion of all projects as of 2019 is at 11%.

    4.     CENTRAL ASIA

    • News: The Indian Navy is monitoring the Chinese Navy and its maritime assets deployed in the IOR, says Navy chief Admiral Karambir Singh on the sidelines of the Goa Maritime Conclave.
    • Map of central Asia:

    5.     METAVERSE

    • News: Facebook whistleblower Frances Haugen warned on Tuesday that the “metaverse”, the all-encompassing virtual reality world promised by the social media giant, will be addictive and rob people of yet more personal information while giving the embattled company another monopoly online.
    • About Metaverse:
      • The metaverse (a portmanteau of “meta-” and “universe” or “Universe” and “Meta”) is a hypothesized iteration of the internet, supporting persistent online 3-D virtual environments through conventional personal computing, as well as virtual and augmented reality headsets.
      • Metaverses, in some limited form, are already present on platforms like VRChat or video games like Second Life.
      • Current metaverse ambitions are centered on addressing technological limitations with modern virtual and augmented reality devices, as well as expanding the use of metaverse spaces to business, education, and retail applications.