Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 10th December 2021


    • News: Members of the Chamundi Betta Ulisi Samiti launched a signature campaign in the city on Thursday to muster public support to help save the Chamundi Hills and its environment.
    • About Chamundi Hills:
      • The Chamundi Hills are located 13 km east of Mysore, Karnataka, India.
      • The name comes from the Chamundeshwari Temple at the peak. The average elevation is 1,060 metres (3,480 ft).
      • The Chamundeshwari Temple is located atop the Chamundi Hills. Patronised for centuries by Mysore rulers, it was renovated during the time of Krishnaraja Wodeyar III (1827).
    • About Chamundeshwari Temple:
      • The Chamundeshwari Temple is a Hindu temple located on the top of Chamundi Hills about 13 km from the palace city of Mysuru in the state of Karnataka in India.
      • The temple was named after Chamundeshwari or, the fierce form of Shakti, a tutelary deity held in reverence for centuries by the Maharaja of Mysuru.
      • The Chamundeshwari Temple is considered as a Shakti Peetha and one among the 18 Shakti Peethas.
      • It is known as Krouncha Pitha as the region was known in Puranic times as Krouncha Puri. It is said that the hair of Sati fell here.
      • There is a huge granite Nandi on the 700th step on the hill in front of a small Shiva temple a short distance away.


    • News: The Government refrained from commenting on a Supreme Court notice issued to it on a petition that seeks directions to the respondents to take steps to remove anomalies on the grounds of divorce, maintenance and alimony.
    • About Uniform Civil Code:
      • Uniform Civil Code is a proposal in India to formulate and implement secular personal laws of citizens which apply on all citizens equally regardless of their religion. Currently, personal laws of various communities are governed by their religious scriptures.
      • Personal laws are distinguished from public law and cover marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption and maintenance.
      • Meanwhile, article 25-28 of Indian constitution guarantee religious freedom to Indian citizens and allows religious groups to maintain their own affairs, article 44 of the constitution expects the Indian state to apply directive principles and common law for all Indian citizens while formulating national policies.
      • Personal laws were first framed during the British Raj, mainly for Hindu and Muslim citizens.
      • The British feared opposition from community leaders and refrained from further interfering within this domestic sphere.
      • Indian state of Goa was separated from British India due to colonial rule in the erstwhile Portuguese Goa and Damaon, retained a common family law known as the Goa civil code and thus being only state in India with a uniform civil code till date.
      • Following India’s independence, Hindu code bills were introduced which largely codified and reformed personal laws in various sects among Indian religions like Buddhists, Hindus, Jains and Sikhs while exempted Christians, Jewish people, Muslims and Parsis, being identified as distinct communities from Hindus.


    • News: Global vaccine-sharing network COVAX is still seeing strong demand for India-made doses of the AstraZeneca COVID-19 shot, said one of its backers, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), following comments from its producer, the Serum Institute of India (SII), that uptake had slowed sharply.
    • About Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization:
      • GAVI, officially Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (previously the GAVI Alliance, and before that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization) is a public–private global health partnership with the goal of increasing access to immunization in poor countries.
      • In 2016, Gavi channeled more than half of total donor assistance for health, and most donor assistance for immunization, by monetary measure.
      • Gavi supports the immunization of almost half the world’s children. Gavi has helped immunize over 760 million children, preventing over 13 million deaths worldwide, helping increase diphtheria vaccine coverage in supported countries from 59% in 2000 to 81% in 2019, contributing to reducing child mortality by half.
      • It also seeks to improve the economics of vaccines, negotiating bulk prices, supporting price discrimination, and reducing the commercial risks that manufacturers face when selling vaccines to the poor and developing vaccines.
      • It also provides funding to strengthen health systems and train health workers across the developing world, though the effectiveness of its health-system-strenghtening programs is disputed.
      • Gavi facilitates vaccinations in developing countries by working with donor governments, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank, the vaccine industry in both industrialised and developing countries, research and technical agencies, civil society, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other private philanthropists.


    • News: The new and renewable energy ministry said that no vendor has been authorised by it for the installation of rooftop solar.
    • About Rooftop Solar Scheme:
      • To generate solar power by installing solar panels on the roof of the houses, the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is implementing Grid-connected Rooftop Solar Scheme (Phase II).
      • It aims to achieve a cumulative capacity of 40,000 MW from Rooftop Solar Projects by the year 2022.
      • In a grid-connected rooftop or small Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) system wherein the DC power generated from the SPV panel is converted to AC power using the power conditioning unit and is fed to the grid.
      • The major objective of the programme includes:
        • To promote the grid-connected SPV rooftop and small SPV power generating plants among the residential, community, institutional, industrial and commercial establishments.
        • To mitigate the dependence on fossil fuel based electricity generation and encourage environment-friendly Solar electricity generation.
        • To create an enabling environment for investment in the solar energy sector by the private sector, state government and the individuals.
        • To create an enabling environment for the supply of solar power from rooftop and small plants to the grid.
      • This scheme is being implemented in the state by distribution companies (DISCOMs).
      • Under this scheme the Ministry is providing a 40% subsidy for the first 3 kW and 20% subsidy beyond 3 kW and upto 10 kW of solar panel capacity.
      • The residential consumer has to pay the cost of rooftop solar plant by reducing the subsidy amount given by the Ministry as per the prescribed rate to the vendor.