Arctic Region and Arctic Council

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

8 Jul, 2020


About Brahmaputra River: The Brahmaputra called Yarlung

3 Jul, 2020
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    Current Affairs – 03 March 2021


    • News: Sri Lanka on Tuesday said it will develop the West Container Terminal (WCT) at the Colombo Port, along with India and Japan. The decision comes a month after the Rajapaksa government ejected the two partners from a 2019 tripartite agreement to jointly develop the East Container Terminal (ECT), citing resistance to “foreign involvement”.
    • Details:
      • Approval had been granted to develop the WCT with investors nominated by India and Japan.
      • While the High Commission of India had “approved” Adani Ports, which was to invest in the ECT project earlier, Japan is yet to name an investor.


    • News: The telecom spectrum auctions concluded on Tuesday after bidding for a day and a half, with the Centre garnering ₹77,814.8 crore in revenues.
    • About Spectrum Policy of India:
      • Energy travels in the form of waves known as electromagnetic waves.
      • These waves differ from each other in terms of frequencies. This whole range of frequencies is called the spectrum. In telecommunication like TV, radio and GPRS, radio waves of different wavelengths are used.
      • They are divided into bands based on frequencies (see ‘Radio spectrum’).
      • Mobile phones use two technologies based on different parts of the radio spectrum— GSM (global system for mobile communications) and CDMA (code division multiple access).
        Most of the radio spectrum is reserved in countries for defence.
      • The rest is available for public use. But following an increase in the number of phone users and new services, countries started auctioning the frequencies to telecom companies.
      • S band was allocated by the World Radiocommunication Conference, organised by International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in 2000 for terrestrial mobile communications services.
      • ITU is a UN body that regulates information and communication technology issues. S band was initially used by meteorology departments and communications satellites.
      • Mobile phones entered India based on 2G technology.
    • About International Telecommunication Union (ITU):
      • The International Telecommunication Union, is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies.
      • Established in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, it is one of the oldest international organizations in operation.
      • The ITU was initially aimed at helping connect telegraphic networks between countries, with its mandate consistently broadening with the advent of new communications technologies; it adopted its current name in 1934 to reflect its expanded responsibilities over radio and the telephone.
      • On 15 November 1947, the ITU entered into an agreement with the newly created United Nations to become a specialized agency within the UN system, which formally entered into force on 1 January 1949.
      • The ITU promotes the shared global use of the radio spectrum, facilitates international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, assists in developing and coordinating worldwide technical standards, and works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world.
      • It is also active in the areas of broadband Internet, wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.
      • Based in Geneva, Switzerland, the ITU’s global membership includes 193 countries and around 900 business, academic institutions, and international and regional organizations.
      • Membership of ITU is open to all Member States of the United Nations, which may join the Union as Member States. There are currently 193 Member States of the ITU, including all UN member states except the Republic of Palau.
      • The most recent member state to join the ITU is South Sudan, which became a member on 14 July 2011.
      • Palestine was admitted as a United Nations General Assembly observer in 2010.


    • News: After nearly two years of work, the merger of the Lok Sabha TV (LSTV) and the Rajya Sabha TV (RSTV) has been finalised and will be replaced by Sansad TV. On Monday, retired IAS officer Ravi Capoor was appointed its Chief Executive Officer.
    • Details:
      • Under the banner of Sansad TV, the LSTV would continue to telecast live the House proceedings and the RSTV that of the Upper House.
      • During the inter-session period and beyond the working hours of Parliament, both will telecast common content to a large extent.
      • The LSTV platform would telecast programmes in Hindi, while RSTV would do so in English.
      • The two language variants, it was felt, enables better branding and increased viewership.
      • The attempt is to go beyond the proceedings of the Houses and show the functioning of Parliament and parliamentarians when the House is not in session.


    • News: A Himalayan mammal, somewhere between a goat and an antelope, has been confirmed as the newest creature to be spotted in Assam.
    • About Himalayan Serow:
      • The Himalayan serow (Capricornis sumatraensis thar) is a subspecies of the mainland serow native to the Himalayas. It was previously considered its own species, as Capricornis thar.
      • The Himalayan serow is mostly blackish, with flanks, hindquarters, and upper legs that are a rusty red; its lower legs are whitish.
      • Capricornis sumatraensisis listed in CITES Appendix I.
    • About Manas National Park:
      • Manas National Park or Manas Wildlife Sanctuary is a national park, UNESCO Natural World Heritage site, a Project Tiger reserve, an elephant reserve and a biosphere reserve in Assam, India.
      • Located in the Himalayan foothills, it is contiguous with the Royal Manas National Park in Bhutan.
      • The park is known for its rare and endangered endemic wildlife such as the Assam roofed turtle, hispid hare, golden langur and pygmy hog.
      • Manas is famous for its population of the wild water buffalo.
      • The name of the park is originated from the Manas River, which is named after the serpent goddess Manasa.
      • There is only one forest village, Pagrang, in the core of the national park.
      • There are two major biomes present in Manas:
        • The grassland biomes:pygmy hog, Indian rhinoceros (re-introduced in 2007 after extinction due to heavy poaching during the Bodo uprising), bengal florican, wild Asian buffalo, etc.

    The forest biomes: slow loris, capped langur, wild pig, sambar, great hornbill, Malayan giant squirrel or black